[Table of Contents][1][2][3-A][3-B][3-C][3-D][3-E][3-F][3-G][3-H][3-I][4-A][4-B][4-C][4-D][4-E][4-F][4-G][4-H][4-I][4-J][4-K][4-L][4-Notes][5-A][5-B][5-C][Bibliography]

Chapter 4-L



1.Dale Bishop, Persian Literature 52.

2.E. H. Palmer, trans., The Koran (Qur'ân) (London: Oxford University Press, 1928) 527.

3.Palmer, The Koran 532-533.

4.Alfred Biese, The Development of the Feeling for Nature in the Middle Ages and Modern Times (New York: Burt Franklin, 1905), 22-23.

5.Biese 29.

6.Sheila R. Canby, Persian Painting (New York: Thomas & Hudson, 1993) 98.

7.Canby 98.

8.Canby 100-101.

9.Yarshater, Persian Literature 129.

10.Heshmat Moayyad, in Yarshater, Persian Literature 130.

11.Yarshater, ed., Persian Literature 480-481. 

The Enlightenment discovered Persian and other exotic literatures through its humanistic curiosity. . . . It was Sa‘di, however, who most captivated the imagination of the Enlightenment. In 1651, his Golestân was published as the Rosarium in a Latin translation by the Dutch Orientalist, George Gentius, and in 1654, as Der Persianischer Rosenthal in a German version by Adam Olearius.

12.Annemarie Schimmel, Persian Literature 214.

13.Massud Farzan, Persian Literature 264-265.

14.Mohammad Shafi‘ai-kadkani, Bidel, Shâ'er-e آyenehâ (Tehran: آgâh Publications, 1987) 331.

15.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 159-160.

16.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 417.

17.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 418.

18.The word farang which Nimâ uses here was coined in the modern era in Iran as an equivalent for the West. In the Middle Ages it had a different meaning.

19.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 541.

20.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 243.

21.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 244.

22.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 388.

23.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 29. In his will, Nimâ writes the name of well-known scholar Mohammad Mo'in as his executor. However, Mo'in himself soon suffered a stroke and went into a coma, eventually leading to his death. During his life time, Mo'in was able to supervise the publishing of one book by Nimâ called Afsâneh and the Quatrains (Afsâneh va robâ‘iât).  Mo'in has said, “He left me with a heritage to which it is impossible to stay faithful because he wrote everything in pencil and on the back of cigarette packs or on small pieces of paper and, after a while, they would smear against each other and the words would become illegible and incomprehensible.”

24.Jalâl آl-Ahmad in his article “The old man was our eye,” which was previously quoted from, points this out.

25.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 157.

26.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 613.

27.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 613-614.

28.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 614.

29.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 613.

30.Iosif Oranskij, Les langues iraniennes, (Paris: Klincksieck, 1977).

31.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 618.

32.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 627.

33.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 626.

34.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 627.

In a footnote to this double couplet the Persian translator writes, “Divs were a tribe or a people native to Mâzanderân before the coming of the Aryans. . . one of whose commanders conquered Mount آrârât. To this day there is a clan called Divsâlâr [meaning “Div commanders”] who live in the districts of Nur and Kajur[, and] Nimâ himself defines the word tât as ‘eternal'.”

35.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 626.

36.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 626.

37.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 626.

38.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 623.

39.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 623.

40.Kap is a village in the mountainous part of Nur below the village of Hulu-Poshteh.  It is well-known for its cool summer breeze.

41.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 630.

42.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 630.

43.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 631.

44.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 624.

45.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 624.

46.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 623.

47.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 623.

48.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 635.

49.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 640.

50.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 640.

51.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 624.

52.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 638.

53.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 640.

54.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 641.

55.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 627.

56.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 628.

57.Tabari, which is literally another name for the Tâti language, is here a local style of mournful singing.

58.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 632.

59.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 632.

60.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 634.

61.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 634.

62.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 635.

63.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 636.

64.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 636.

65.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 637.

66.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 638. “Golnar” is a girl's name meaning “pomegranate blossom.”

67.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 628.

68.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 629.

69.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 632.

70.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 632.

71.In Persian, these poems are Hast shabShab qoroqHanuz az shab dami bâqistNâqusKhorus mikhânadMahtâbMorgh‑e shabâvizShahr-e khâmushMorgh-e âmin.

72.Nimâ in his previously noted “Autobiography” mentions that Colonel Mohammad Taqi Khân Pesyân wrote a piece of music for this poem. Pesyân led a national uprising in the province of Khorasan against the “treacherous” treaty between the central government and Britain, which was soon suppressed by Rezâ Khân.

73.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 34.

74.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 226-227.

75.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 227.

76.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 227.

77.Translation from Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak, An Anthology of Modern Persian Poetry (Boulder: Westview Press, 1978) 37.

78.Similar to sour cherry blossoms, according to Sirus Tâhbâz.

79.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 238.

80.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 240.

81.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 281.

82.A tree in the forest having poisonous thorns and the smell of whose flower causes headaches in the springtime.

83.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 282.

84.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 282.

85.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 284.

86.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 286.

87.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 288.

88.Vol. 1, no. 18.

89.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 228.

90.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 136.

91.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 151.

92.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 228.

93.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 289.

94.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 291.

95.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 123.

96.Leonardo P. Alishan, “Ten Poems by Nimâ Yushij,” Literature East & West Jan.-Dec. 1976: Vol. XX, Nos. 1-4, 26.

97.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 116.

98.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 420.

99.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 421.

100.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 233.

101.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 234.

102.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 301.

103.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 133.

104.Local name of a tree.

105.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 455.

106.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 455.

107.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 455.

108.A kind of vine in Tabari language.

109.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 455.

110.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 124.

111.Vol. 1, no. 42.

112.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 182.

113.آrash, June 1993.

114.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 457.

115.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 457.

116.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 457.

117.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 457.

118.Karimi-Hakkak, Anthology 30. The last two lines have been changed from the Karimi-Hakkak's English translation in order to stay closer to the original Persian text.

119.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 453.

120.Alishan, Literature East & West 28.

121.Alishan, Literature East & West 31. This line in Alishan's translation is: “The cloud doesn't shed its rain.” This line has been changed to stay true to the original Persian text.

122.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 200.

123.Karimi-Hakkak, Anthology 35.

124.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 515.

125.Look at “The old man was our eye” by Jalal Al-Ahmad.

126.Alishan, Literature East & West 29.

127.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 513-514.

128.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 514-515.

129.Alishan, Literature East & West 27.

130.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 516.

131.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 517.

132.In Persian, these poems are GandenâOjâq-e sardMahtâbMarg-e kâkoliHast ShabSiyulishehKak-kiMâkhulâShabparre‑ye sâhel-e nazdikDârvakBar sar-e qâyeqTo râ man cheshm dar râhamBar farâz-e dasht, and Barf >>> Chapter 5-A