[Table of Contents][1][2][3-A][3-B][3-C][3-D][3-E][3-F][3-G][3-H][3-I][4-A][4-B][4-C][4-D][4-E][4-F][4-G][4-H][4-I][4-J][4-K][4-L][4-Notes][5-A][5-B][5-C][Bibliography]

Chapter 3-I

In the same year, in a letter to Rassâm Arzhangi, he speaks of a change in his convictions, although he is concerned with his poetical mentality:


Although today I have changed a lot and I hold a particular type of social ideas and sentiments and I develop them with vengeance and hatred, I would guarantee that nature, by and large, always invites people to observe it. My mind still is too much poetic, that is, oriental.


     In a letter to Parvis Nâtel-Khânlari, in the same year, he talks about the necessity of a doctrine, principals and so on:


Today, each thinker needs another thinker to be able to choose a foundation and a methodology for his thought. Surely, it will be neither, the way of Sufi that Sanai in his Hadiqeh make a fuss, nor the love related to its mentality.


And finally, in a letter that he had written to Sâdeq Hedâyat, as was quoted earlier, he speaks of art and literature with the rigidity of a party leader.


Nimâ came to Tehran in 1933 and probably this is the time that he met Taqi Erâni in person. Taqi Erâni has the position of Socrates for the Iranian leftists, both in terms of his knowledge and his martyrdom by the hands of the tyrants. He was educated in Germany in physics and was influenced by the social democratic movement. When Erâni came back to Iran, the communist movement had long been suppressed by the new regime and he had to start all over again. In 1934, he began a literary, scientific magazine called Donia ("The World") which was published until 1937 when he and 52 of his associates were arrested by the police. Erâni was sentenced to ten years imprisonment and was killed in February of 1940 apparently through an injection. After the flight of Rezâ Shâh in September of 1941, Erâni's friends and associates were released from prison. They, along with other individuals, went to Erâni's tomb and founded the Tudeh Party of Iran. Nimâ published some of his poems in this party's publication. 


     Two years after Erâni's death, Nimâ wrote a piece called “No, He Has Not Died” in which Nimâ pays tribute to him. It begins with a sincere tone:


Two years have passed in his sorrowful absence

And over his tomb

Two times, the autumn leaves fell. 


Then he compares Rezâ Shâh to an owl, an ominous bird, which is forced to flee:


The unstable owl flew from that place

To sit on a gloomy evening 

At that sorrowful tomb.


In contrast, Erâni is represented as an auspicious bird with broken wings who comes back and wants to speak with his friends:


Flown from prison

The broken-winged bird which was all pain and passion

Sits again over another roof

And from there speaks with us in another tone.


Finally, Nimâ alludes to a line from Hâfez, a thirteenth century lyric poet, which says “never dies the one whose heart has become alive with love”:


No, he is not dead, the one who revives a heart

and the ugly death can never touch him. 





1.Quoted in ed. Eric Fromm and Ramn Xirau, The Essence of Man (New York: MacMillan, 1968) 159.

2.Quoted in Fromm 165.

3.Quoted in Fromm 180.

4.Thomas M. Raysor, ed., Selected Critical Essays by Wordsworth and Coleridge, (N.p.: Appleton Century Croft, 1958) 3.

5.Homâ Nâteq in introduction to Mirzâ Malkom Khân, Ruznâme-ye Qânun (Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1976) 4.

6.Mirzâ Malkom Khân, Majmu‘e-ye âsâr-e Mirzâ Malkom Khân, ed. Mohammad Mohit Tabâtebâ'i (Tehran: Heidari, 1980) vol. 1, p. 11.

7.Malkom Khân, Majmu‘e-ye âsâr 36.

8.آrianpur, vol. 1, p. 320.

9.Faridun آdamiat Andishahâ-ye Mirzâ Fath ‘Ali آkhunzâdeh (Tehran: Khârazmi, 1970) 140.

10.آdamiat 14.

11.Tâlebof, Ketâb-e Ahmad 13.

12.Tâlebof 241.

13.Mohammad ‘Ali Jamâlzâdeh, Yeki bud yeki na-bud (Tehran: Tehran UP, n.d.) 35.

14.Nimâ Yushij, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr-e Nimâ Yushij: fârsi va tabari (Tehran: Enteshârât-e Negâh, 1992) 37.

15.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 42.

16.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 54.

17.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 45.

18.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 49.

19.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 49-50.

20.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 50.

21.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 37.

22.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 37.

23.Nimâ Yushij, Nâmehâ-ye Nimâ Yushij, Sirus Tâhbâz, ed., (Tehran: Nashr-e âbi, 1984) 166.

24.Abu'l-Qâsem Jannati ‘Atâ'i, Nimâ Yushij: zendegâni va âthâr-e u, 2nd edition (Tehran: Bongâh-e matbu‘âti-ye Safi ‘Alishâh, 1955) 21.

25.آrianpur, vol. 2, p. 421.

26.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 169.

27.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 38.

28.Majid Naficy, “‘Eshq dar khosro va Shirin-e Nezâmi,” in Barresi-ye ketâb, vol. 2, no. 8, 1991, 83.

29.E. J. Brill's First Encyclopedia of Islam, ed. M. Th. Houtsma, et al. (New York: E. J. Brill, 1987 reprint), vol. viii, 988.

30.Reynold Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907) 237-238.

31.Helen Fisher, Anatomy of Love: A Natural History of Mating, Marriage, and Why We Stray (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992) 53.

32.“Chehre-ye zan dar she‘r-e Ahmad Shâmlu”, in Forugh (Los Angeles) vol. iv, Autumn 1990.  Originally delivered as a talk in the presence of Ahmad Shâmlu and his wife آydâ, in Berkeley at the conference of the Center for Iranian Research and Analysis, on April 8, 1990.

33.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 55.

34.Shâhrokh Meskub, “Afsâne-ye tabi‘at”, in Irân Nâmeh, vol. x, no. 4, Fall 1992, 660.

35.Frederick Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, ed. Eleanor Burke Leacock (New York: International Publishers, 1985) 139.

36.Engels 140.

37.Dante Alighieri, La vita nuova, trans. Barbara Reynolds (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1969) 15.

38.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 38.

39.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 38-39.

40.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 47.

41.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 44.

42.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 55.

43.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 44.

44.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 40-41.

45.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 43.

46.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 46-47.

47.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 58.

48.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 59.

49.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 59.

50.Nimâ Yushij, Bargozide-ye âsâr-e Nimâ Yushij (nasr), Sirus Tâhbâz, ed., (Tehran: Bozorgmehr, 1980) 9-10.

51.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 236.

52.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 236-237.

53.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 237-238.

54.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 293.

55.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 419.

56.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 420.

57.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 420.

58.Quoted in Nimâ Yushij, Gozine-ye ash‘âr-e Nimâ Yushij, ed. Yadollâh Jalâhi Pandari (Tehran: Morvârid, 1991) 17-18.

59.Quoted in Sirus Tâhbâz, Yush (Tehran: Mo'assase-ye Motâle‘ât va Tahqiqât-e Ejtemâ‘i, 1963) 9.

60.Tâhbâz, Yush 12-13.

61.Nimâ, Nasr 10.

62.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 26.

63.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 140.

64.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 221-222.

65.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 131.

66.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 38-39.

67.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 237.

68.Nimâ Yushij, Dar bâre-ye she‘r va shâ‘eri, ed. Sirus Tâhbâz (Tehran: Daftarhâ-ye Zamâneh, 1989) 16. This translation and those which follow are my own.

69.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 17.

70.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 18.

71.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 19.

72.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 9.

73.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 14.

74.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 10.

75.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 10.

76.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 36.

77.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 37.

78.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 19.

79.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 56.

80.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 53.

81.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 58.

82.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 58.

83.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 59.

84.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 59.

85.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 71.

86.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 72.

87.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 105.

88.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 112.

89.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 130.

90.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 132.

91.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 155.

92.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 157.

93.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 158.

94.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 160.

95.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 158.

96.A classical poet.

97.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 19.

98.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 146.

99.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 146.

100.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 142.

101.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 142.

102.A play on words, tâleb means “one who desires.”

103.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 78.

104.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 56.

105.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 168.

106.Quoted in Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 22.

107.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 221.

108.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 23.

109.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 23.

110.Nimâ, Majmu'e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 232.

111.Jerome Clinton, in “Court Poetry at the Beginning”, in Persian Literature, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, writes,

     The basis of Persian meter is syllable quantity, although stress also played an important but poorly understood role. An arrangement of three of four syllables is a foot, and a particular sequence of three to five feet constitutes a named meter. Each meter defines a half-bayt or Mesrâ‘, such as the motaqâreb meter (_‑‑/_‑‑/_‑‑/_‑) and the hazaj meter (‑‑__/‑‑__/‑‑__/‑‑).

112.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât, ed. Abolqâsem Jannati-‘Atâ'i (Tehran: Safi‘alishâh, 1956) 61.

113.Nimâ, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 61-62.

114.Nimâ, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 141.

115.Nimâ Yushij, Dar bâre-ye she‘r va shâ‘eri, ed. Siruz Tâhbâz (Tehran: Daftarhâ-ye zamâneh, 1989) 178.

116.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 186.

117.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 227.

118.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 236.

119.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 261.

120.Finn Thiesen, A Manual of Classical Persian Prosody (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1982), 3.

121.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 290.

122.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 294.

123.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 305.

124.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 338.

125.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 342.

126.Nimâ, She‘r va shâ‘eri 346.

127.Ehsan Yarshater, ed., Persian Literature, (New York: Persian Heritage Foundation, 1988) 11-12.

128.Jes Asmussen, “Manichaean Literature,” Persian Literature 65.

129.Niece of Behruz Suresrafil, who was a famous poet and journalist during the constitutional revolution and was executed by the despotic government.

130.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 18.

131.Nimâ, Nasr 11-12.

132.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 127.

133.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 127.

134.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 114.

135.Nimâ, Nasr 6. The first stanza of Nimâ’s poem reads:

At night when the shadow of everything is upside down

The stormy sea

Is drowned in its own wave

Every fleeting shadow has crept to a corner towards the rush of an escaping wave.

A shadow is hidden

Emerging from somewhere (Nimâ, Majmu`e-ye kâmel-e ash`âr 280).

136.Nimâ, Nasr 127. The word “eggs” in Persian also means “testicles”.

137.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 350.

138.Nimâ, Nasr 11.

139.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 5-6.

140.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 3.

141.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 21.

142.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 45.

143.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 116-117.

144.Nimâ Yushij, Arzesh-e ehsâsât 140.

145.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 15.

146.Nimâ, Gozine-ye ash‘âr 15-16.

147.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 21.

148.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 21.

149.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 69-70.

150.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 82.

151.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 82-83.

152.Nimâ, Nâmehâ 88.

153.A classical poet who lived in the Ghaznavi period.

154.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 304.

155.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 305.

156.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 305.

157.Nimâ, Majmu‘e-ye kâmel-e ash‘âr 306.


>>> Chapter 4-A