In order to understand destructive idea of Mao, it is imperative to understand Marx's world view first. Marx inspired by Hegel and his interpretation of Dialectic. Dialectic comes from the word dialogue or debate. Hegel understanding of dialectic was simple. He decided elements of nature in 3 components(.عناصر ۳ گانه)A. thesis, which giving rise to its reaction B. anti thesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, C. synthesis which is tension between the two being resolved. In simple language, Hegel explains 3 elements as: Problem- reaction and then solution. Similar to western 3 elements, we have had been 4 elements in Persian mythology (عناصر اربعه). An example of Persian 4 elements are:  wind, storm, fire and water. another example is 1. birth, 2.death, 3. marriage 4. divorce. Or in feelings, we have   1.Love 2.Hate 3. rage 4. guilt. 
Marx personally use the metaphor of egg. In that,  yellow part of egg is thesis and white part is anti thesis and tension or struggle between these two result to synthesis which is chicken. The most important aspect of synthesis is that it has no similarity with prior thesis and anti thesis. No similarity between synthesis and the other two at all. Synthesis has it's own characteristics. Chicken is way different than yellow or white part of egg. We can use different examples such as human body. Healthy human body with normal cells are thesis. Once human body ages, it develops cancer cell.  The cancer cells are antithesis.  The cancer cells are fighting with normal cells. Again, that tension between normal cell and cancer cells leads to death (synthesis). The quality synthesis is way different than thesis (normal cells) and antithesis (cancer cells). Death has it's own characteristic which has nothing to do with 2 prior elements. Marx inspired from Hegel used this concept and applied it to historical process which is the topic of my next blog.