In addition to Wang — who was apprehended while conducting research for his Princeton history dissertation and sentenced to 10 years in prison on charges of espionage — at least four Americans are in Iranian custody:


Siamak Namazi, a businessman with dual U.S. and Iranian citizenship, was imprisoned in 2015, while visiting relatives in Iran.

Months later, his 81-year-old father, Baquer Namazi, a former UNICEF official and also a dual citizen, was detained. Both were sentenced to 10 years in prison on vague charges of "cooperating with Iran's enemies."

Karan Vafadari, an Iranian-American art dealer, was detained at a Tehran airport in 2016 and sentenced to 27 years for "attempting to overthrow the Islamic Republic" and "recruiting spies through foreign embassies." His sentence was later reduced to 15 years, according to the Center for Human Rights in Iran, a New York-based nonprofit. He is Zoroastrian, a minority religion in Iran.

Gholamreza Shahini, a dual U.S.-Iranian citizen from San Diego is out on bail waiting for an appeals court to reconsider his 18-year prison sentence for "collaboration with a hostile government." He was detained while visiting family in Iran in 2016.

Robert Levinson, a retired FBI agent, also vanished during a visit to Iran's Kish Island in 2007. It is unclear whether he's still alive, but earlier this year, on the 11th anniversary of his disappearance, the FBI renewed its call for Iran to return him.

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